Dr. Jo Armour Smith is one of the nation’s top researchers in biomechanics, back pain and neuroscience. She’s helped author over 30 published research articles and lead the research for 15 of them.

When I first met her, she was preparing her dissertation on back pain, and a little muscle called the “multifidus,” a muscle that is underactive in over 85% of people with chronic back pain, and as my own practice would suggest, is commonly underactive in individuals with a variety of bodily pain including shoulders, hips, knees, and neck.

Why is it underactive? It all comes back to the connection between back pain and neuroscience.